Scientific Reports

Scientific Literature and Bibliographic Summaries


Four of the study species for “Quiet(er) marine protected areas,” which differ in both spatial distribution and hearing abilities: (A) humpback whale; (B) harbor seal; (C) Pacific white-sided dolphin; and (D) killer whale. Photos courtesy of Marine Pollution Bulletin.

On Noise: 

2015 – Williams, Rob et al. Quiet(er) Marine Protected Areas. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 100 Issue 1, November 15, 2015, pages 154-161. (See also news release.)

2015 – Huggins, Jessica L. et al, Dedicated beach surveys along the central Washington coast reveal a high proportion of unreported marine mammal strandings, MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 31(2): 782–789 (April 2015)

2015 – Francis, Clinton D. Vocal traits and diet explain avian sensitivities to anthropogenic noise, Global Change Biology, Durham, NC. 11 pages.

2015 – Medical News Today. Link observed between waist size and noise pollution. News report on a Swedish study.


2014 – Engels, Svenja et al, Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird  Nature magazine, 15 May 2014, pages 353-361

2014 – Morrison, Jessica, Electronics’ noise disorients migratory birds Nature magazine, 7 May 2014, 6 pages.

2014 – US Forest Service web page: Literature Search – Effects of Noise on Wildlife


A fighter jet breaks the sound barrier.

2013 – Mann, David S., Whidbey Island Military Jet Noise measurements, JGL Acoustics,  10 June 2013. 13 pages.

2013 – Bres, G.A., Ham, F.E, et al. Massively-Parallel Simulations of Supersonic Jet Noise from Complex Nozzles; Importance and challenges of jet noise predictions for tactical air- craft. Stanford University and Naval Air Systems Command Patuxent. August 7, 2013. 9 pages. “Unlike commercial airplanes, the propulsion systems of combat aircraft are based on low bypass ratio turbo-jet engines…”

2011 – World Health Organization and European Commission. “Burden of disease from environmental noise, Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe,” 106 pages.

2010 – Scientific studies from the New York-New Jersey-Pennsylvania Airspace Redesign.

No date – National Park Service. Impacts of Noise and overflights on wildlife: annotated bibliography. National Park Service, Natural Sounds Program center. 32pp.

2007 – Radle, A.L. The Effects of Noise on Wildlife: A Literature Review.  University of Oregon. March 2, 2007. 16pp.

2007 – Hodgdon, Kathleen et al. Low Frequency Noise Study. The Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction Massachusetts Institute of Technology. April 2007.  105 pages.

2006 – Cox, T.M. et al. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic sound on beaked whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 7(3):177–187, 2006. 11 pages.

2004 – Federal Highway Administration (FHA). 2004. Synthesis of noise effects on wildlife populations. US Dept. Transportation, FHA. # FHWA-HEP-06-016.

2004 – Vinokur, Roman. Acoustic Noise as a Non-Lethal Weapon. Sound and Vibration, October 2004. 5 pages. Discusses the damaging effects of noise-weapons that have been used by the military and police. Of note is that the French government did studies using 140 decibels of sound as “a weapon to kill people.”

2001 – Brown, L. Overview of research on effects of noise on wildlife. Pages 10-13. In. Baker, M. and Belliveau, G. (eds.) Effects of noise on wildlife conference, Proceedings. Happy Valley – Goose Bay, Labrador. Aug. 22-23, 2000. Institute for Environmental Monitoring and Research.

2000 – Passchier-Vermeer, W. and Passchier, W.F. Noise Exposure and Public Health. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 108 Supplement 1. March 2000. 131 pages.

2000 – Efroymson, R.A., Rose, R.A., Nemeth, S., and Suter II, G.W., Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft   Joint Federal Agency Report: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Army Construction Research Engineering Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency. (Date unknown; uses data from 1963-1999) ORNL/TM-2000/289. ES-5048.

1996 – Larkin, R.P., Pater, L.L., and D.J. Tazik, D.J. Effects of military noise on wildlife: A literature review. USACERL Technical Report 96/21, January 1996.

1995 – National Park Service. Report on effects of aircraft overflights on the National Park System: Report to Congress. Washington, DC.

1994 – Evison, Boyd et al, Report [to Congress] on Effects of Aircraft Overflights on the National Park System  US Department of the Interior, National Park Service and Department of Transportation, 12 September 1994.

1994 – Larkin, Ronald P, Effects of military noise on wildlife: a literature review Center for Wildlife Ecology, Illinois Natural History Survey, 87 pages.

1992 – US Forest Service. Report to Congress: Potential Impacts of Aircraft Overflights of National Forest System Wildernesses.

1991 – Suter, Alice H. Noise and its Effects. Report to the Administrative Conference of the United States. November 1991. 47 pages.

1989 – Michulak, Ran et al. Acute circulatory effects of military low-altitude flight noise.  International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (1990) 62:365-372. March 1990. 7 pages.

1988 – Gladwin, Douglas et al, Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Domestic Animals and Wildlife: Bibliographic Abstracts (Results of a survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service endangered species and ecological services field offices, refuges, hatcheries, and research centers) US Fish and Wildlife Service, June 1988, 78 pages.

1988 – Literature Synthesis on above, with tables and summaries.  – Joint Federal Agency Report.

1980 – Dufor, P. A. Effects of noise on wildlife and other animals: Review of research since 1971. USEPA, Office of Noise Abatement & Control. Washington, D.C. Dec. 31, 1971. EPA 550/9 BO-100.

1974 – Information on levels of environmental noise requisite to protect public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety  EPA Office of Noise Abatement and Control, March 1974.


On Electromagnetic Radiation:

2016 – Black, Bryan, Romero-Ortega, Mario, et al. Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Elicit Neuropathic Pain in an Amputation Model. University of Texas at Dallas, January 13, 2016. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144268.  News release: Study Uncovers How Electromagnetic Fields Amplify Pain in Amputees ,” February 3, 2016.

2015 – Testimony of Albert M. Manville, II, Ph.D., C.W. B., and Principal, Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Solutions, LLC, on Behalf of Friends of Amazon Creek, Before the City of Eugene City Planning Department in Opposition to AT&T/Crossfire’s Application for a “Stealth” Cellular Communications Tower in the Upper Amazon Creek Corridor. Significance: “The electromagnetic radiation standards used by the FCC continue to be based on thermal heating, a criterion now 30 years out of date and inapplicable today. This is primarily due to the lower levels of radiation output from microwave-powered communication devices such as cellular telephones and their cell towers, Wi-Fi, so called “smart meters,” and other sources of point-to-point communications; levels typically lower than from microwave ovens. FCC, to date, has been unwilling to update their regulatory standards.”

2015 – Ellis, Jason, Directed Energy Weapons: Promise and Prospect. Center for a New American Security. 41 pages.

2015 – Guangying Qi et al, Effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) exposure on B6C3F1 mice.  May 5, 2015, Springer Japan, Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine Med, DOI 10.1007/s12199-015-0463-5. Long-term exposure, Chronic myeloid leukemia, Fertility

2014 – Kirschvink, Joseph L,  Radio waves zap the biomagnetic compass  Nature magazine, May 7, 2014, pages 296-297.

2012 – Cucurachi, S., et al,  A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF)   Environment International, October 24, 2012, 25 pages.

2014 – Blank, Martin, Columbia University, Effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on cells and reactions with DNA, as in the cellular stress response: multiple citations here. Video statement here.

2010 – Haggerty, Katie, Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations, International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 836278, 7 pages.

2006 – World Health Organization. “Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health,” backgrounder with links.

1999 – H. Berg, “Problems of weak electromagnetic field effects in cell biology,” Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 355–360, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Scopus

On Jet Emissions: 


2010 – American Petroleum Institute, Petroleum HPV Testing Group. Kerosene/Jet Fuel Category Assessment Document. Submitted to EPA, September 21, 2010. 47 pages.

2012 – UC Berkeley – CO2 Emissions from an EA-18G Growler (Word file)    PDF version

On Species:

Killer whale research.

Calambokidis, John, et al, Biologically Important Areas for Selected Cetaceans Within U.S. Waters – West Coast Region, Aquatic Mammals 2015, 41(1), 39-53, DOI 10.1578/AM.41.1.2015.39

Wilcock, William S.D., and Mellinger, David K., An Investigation of Fin and Blue Whales in the NE Pacific Ocean using Data from Cascadia Initiative Ocean Bottom Seismometers (Report for Navy.)